19 October-Luther

Martin Luther was a Roman Catholic theologian and Augustinian Friar who began the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. The publication of his 95 theses on October 31st 1517 called into question some of practices then in vogue in the Catholic Church. The Theses and other writings gained numerous followers who split from the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther was born in Eisleben in present day Germany on November 10th 1483. Having joined the Augustinian Order he was ordained a priest in 1507. He began teaching at the University of Wittenberg and was made a Doctor of Theology in 1512. He visited Rome in 1510 where some of the corrupt practices he witnessed there, led him to publish his Theses.

He was excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521 and declared a heretic and outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. His writings however became popular across northern and eastern Europe. Luther made the bible accessible to the laity by translating it into the German language. He made strong written attacks on people of the Jewish faith saying their homes should be destroyed and their liberty curtailed. Luther married a former nun with whom he had six children. He died on February 18th 1546 at the age of 62.

Martin Luther, a Roman Catholic priest who began the Protestant Reformation in 16th-century Europe, was made a Doctor of Theology (Doctor in Biblia) in the year 1512 On This Day.

Luther

 

 

18 October-Elizabeth Arden

Elizabeth Arden was a businesswoman and beauty pioneer who was a native of Canada. She founded the cosmetics, skin care and fragrance company Elizabeth Arden, Inc. in 1910. The company became an international success and Elizabeth Arden became one of the wealthiest women in the world. In 1962 she purchased Barretstown Castle in Co Kildare. The castle was her home until her death in 1966.

Elizabeth Arden was born Florence Nightingale Graham in Ontario, Canada on December 31st 1878. Having spent time training to be a nurse she moved to New York to work for a pharmaceutical company where she studied skin care. She opened her first salon, The Red Door in New York in 1910. By 1966 there were over 100 Elizabeth Arden salons around the world. Today Elizabeth Arden Inc. is a subsidiary of Revlon, Inc.

Elizabeth Arden, businesswoman, beauty pioneer and founder of Elizabeth Arden, Inc. died aged 87 in the year 1966 On This Day.

 Elizabeth Arden Building New York

Elizabeth Arden Body Lotion

 

17 October-Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who was a native of Italy. His father Giuseppe was from Bologna, Italy. His mother was Annie Jameson from Daphne Castle, Co Wexford, Ireland. Marconi’s great grandfather was John Jameson, founder of Irish whiskey distillers Jameson & Sons. Through his own research and using research carried out by others Marconi developed the first effective system of radio communication.

On December 12th 1901 Marconi succeeded in sending the first wireless signal across the Atlantic to America. He routed the signal through Marconi House, Rosslare, Co Wexford and Clifden in Co Galway. The signal was received 3,500km (2,200 Miles) in Newfoundland.

Marconi founded the Marconi Telephone Company and became a successful businessman. He continued to experiment with radio technology. In 1907, having built high-powered radio transmission stations on both sides of the Atlantic, he established regular transatlantic transmissions. Marconi died in Rome on July 20th 1937.

Guglielmo Marconi began offering limited commercial wireless telegraph service between Ireland and Nova Scotia in the year 1907 On This Day.

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Station, Malin Head, Co. Donegal

Guglielmo Marconi.jpg

Marconi

Library of Congress 

 

 

 

16 October-Oscar Wilde

Oscar Wilde was a playwright, novelist, and poet who was a native of Dublin, Ireland. As a writer he is best known for his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray and his play The Importance of Being Earnest. Apart from his writing, his wit and lifestyle made Wilde one of the best known personalities of his time.

Oscar Wilde was born Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde was born at 21 Westland Row, Dublin in 1854. He was educated at Portora Royal School at Enniskillen and at Trinity College Dublin. Following graduation from Trinity, Wilde was awarded a scholarship for further study at Magdalen College in Oxford.

Having completed his studies at Oxford in 1878, Wilde moved to London where he began writing poetry. In 1882 he travelled to North America where he spent almost a year on a lecture tour. He spent the following year on the lecture circuit in Ireland and England before taking up a post as editor of a woman’s magazine.

During his time as editor Wilde began writing what would be his most famous works. By 1890 he was one of the most successful playwrights of his time. In February 1895 the Marquis of Queensbury accused Wilde of being a sodomite. Wilde sued him for slander but lost.

In the trial which followed Wilde was found guilty of gross indecency and sentenced in May 1895 to two years of imprisonment. On being released he moved to France where he died on November 30th 1900. He is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.

Oscar Wilde, playwright, novelist, and poet, was born in Dublin in the year 1854 On This Day.

 

 

 

15 October-Mata Hari

Mata Hari was a native of the Netherlands. She was a professional dancer who also worked as a spy for the French government during World War I. However she was suspected by the French, of being a double agent. She was arrested and tried for being a German spy and executed by firing squad.

Mata Hari was born Margaretha Geertruida Zelle in Leeuwarden, Netherlands on August 7th 1876. She studied at a teachers college in Leiden. She later married Dutch army Captain Rudolph MacLeod and the couple lived in Java and Sumatra until 1902. They returned to Europe and following their separation Margaretha began to dance professionally in Paris under the name Mata Hari.

Mata Hari began to work as a spy for France in 1917. She agreed to use her meetings with Germans to glean information for the French authorities. She was however suspected of passing information to the Germans. She was arrested for being a double agent and found guilty by a military court in July 1917.

Mata Hari, a professional dancer who worked as a spy during World War I, was executed by firing squad by the French Government in the year 1917 On This Day.

Mata Hari

Mata Hari