Benito Mussolini was journalist and socialist politician who founded the Fascist party in Italy in 1919. He was appointed Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and ruled Italy until he was ousted from power in 1943. He was captured the Italian resistance while trying to escape in April 1945 and executed.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born in Dovia di Predappio, Forlì in north central Italy in 1883. He qualified as an elementary schoolteacher in 1901. Mussolini moved to Switzerland in 1902 where he became involved in socialist politics. He returned to Italy in 1904 to work for the socialist press. Following World War I Mussolini founded the Fascist Party in March 1919.
By 1922 Italy was in political chaos. Mussolini was invited by King Victor Emmanuel to form a government. Mussolini took the title of ‘Il Duce’. He gradually dismantled the institutions of democratic government and appointed himself dictator in 1925. He established a regime which was held together by strong state control. Violet Gibson from Dublin, wounded Mussolini, when she attempted to assassinate him on April 7th 1926.
As part of his efforts to form a new Italian Empire Mussolini invaded Ethiopia (then Abyssinia) in 1935. During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) he provided military support for Franco who went on to become dictator of Spain. In 1939 he signed the Pact of Steel which increased cooperation with Nazi Germany. Mussolini declared war on the Allies in June 1940.
The Italian Army suffered several defeats in North Africa and the Allies landed troops in Sicily in July 1943. Mussolini was overthrown by his own Fascist party and imprisoned. He was rescued by German commandos and installed as leader of a puppet government in northern Italy. When the Allies began to advance Mussolini attempted to flee to Switzerland but was captured and executed by Italian partisans on April 28th 1945.
Benito Mussolini, founder of the Fascist Party and dictator of Italy from 1925 to 1943, was born in the year 1883 On This Day.
Benito Mussolini, 1927 / photographer V. Laviosa, Rome by State Library of New South Wales collection on 1927-01-01 00:00:00
Mussolini, Clara Petacci and other members of the Italian Social Government following their execution by trix2005 on 2008-03-02 16:13:47