05 February-Ronaldo

Cristiano Ronaldo is a professional footballer who is a native of Portugal. He is the recipient of numerous awards and is widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time. During his career he has played for several clubs and has represented his country with distinction.

Cristiano Ronaldo was born Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal in 1985. Having played football as a child in Madeira, he moved to Sporting CP in Lisbon where he began his senior career. He made 25 appearances for Sporting before moving to Manchester United in 2003.

Ronaldo remained at Manchester United until 2009 making 194 appearances for the club and scoring 84 goals. In 2009 he moved to Real Madrid. He played for Real for nine years making 292 appearances and scoring 311 goals. He currently plays with the Italian club Juventus. Ronaldo has played for Portugal on 154 occasions scoring 85 goals.

Cristiano Ronaldo, professional footballer who is a native of Portugal, was born in Funchal, Madeira in the year 1985 On This Day.

Cristiano Ronaldo

30 November-Kaley Cuoco

Kaley Cuoco is an award winning actress who is a native of the USA. She is best known for playing the role of Penny in the television sitcom ’Big Bang Theory’. She has also appeared in several other television series and films.

Kaley Cuoco was born Kaley Christine Cuoco in Camarillo, California in 1985. She was home schooled and began her acting career at an early age. She appeared in her first film, ‘Quicksand: No Escape’ at the age of seven in 1992. She performed in several television series before she began her starring role in the ‘Big Bang Theory’ in 2007.

Kaley Cuoco, award winning actress and star of ‘The Big Bang Theory’, was born in the year 1985 On This Day.

Kaley Cuoco

30 September-Richter Scale

Charles Richter was a seismologist who developed the famous Richter Scale. Known as Richter’s magnitude scale, it measures the strength of earthquakes. The scale was first developed by Richter in 1935 in association with Beno Gutenberg.

Charles Francis Richter was born in Overpeck, Ohio on April 26th 1900. He studied physics at Stanford University and was awarded a PhD by the California Institute of Technology in 1928. Richter worked at the Carnegie Institute in Washington where the Richter scale was developed.

In 1937 Richter began teaching at the California Institute of Technology. He was appointed professor of seismology at Caltech in 1952. Apart from developing the Richter scale Richter developed building codes for buildings in areas prone to earthquakes.

Charles Richter, physicist and seismologist who developed the famous Richter scale in 1935, died aged 85 in the year 1985 On This Day.

Īnangahua Earthquake, 1968

 

 

30 June-Michael Phelps

Michael Phelps is an American swimmer who is the most decorated athlete in Olympic history. He has competed at the 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games winning 28 medals including a record 23 gold medals. At the Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008 he became the first athlete in history to win eight gold medals at one Olympics. In doing so Phelps broke a world record which had stood for thirty six years. That record was held by American swimmer Mark Spitz who won seven gold medals at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.

Michael Fred Phelps was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1985. He began swimming at the age of seven and set a US record in the 100-meter butterfly at the age of ten. At the age of fifteen he qualified for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. He did not win a medal in Sydney but went on to win medals at each subsequent Olympics until the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro.

Michael Phelps was born in the year 1985 On This Day.

Michael Phelps

 

 

20 February-Contraception in Ireland

The sale of contraceptives in Ireland was legal up until 1935. In that year a law was enacted which prohibited the sale of contraceptives in the country. The law, with some alterations in 1979, remained in place for fifty years.

In 1930 the Pope Pius XI issued an encyclical (Casti connubii). The encyclical prohibited people of the Roman Catholic faith from using any form of artificial birth control. In 1935 the Irish Government made it illegal to import or sell contraceptives in Ireland when it passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act. Section 17 (I) of the act stated: ‘It shall not be lawful for any person to sell, or expose, offer, advertise, or keep for sale or to import or attempt to import into Saorstát Eireann for sale, any contraceptive’.

Attempts by people such as Mary Robinson were made to liberalise the law on contraception but without success. There were also several protests, the most famous of which occurred on May 22nd 1971. On that occasion a group of 49 women took the train to Belfast. They purchased contraceptives and when they returned to Dublin refused to hand them over to the authorities. The event generated a lot of controversy and publicity.

A decision was made by the Supreme Court in 1973 that married couples were entitled to privacy under the constitution and as such could import contraceptives for personal use. This meant a change in the legislation was necessary. After several failed attempts the law was eventually changed when The Health (Family Planning) Act of 1979 became law. Under the new legislation contraceptives were made available on prescription from a doctor for bona fide family planning purposes. Six years later the Health (Family Planning) (Amendment) Act 1985 allowed for the sale of contraceptives without a prescription to people aged 18 and over.

The law permitting the sale of contraceptives in Ireland to people aged 18 and over was passed in the year 1985 On This Day.

condom photo

Contraceptives. Condoms by robertelyov